Acne is a skin disorder resulting from the action of hormones and other substances on the skin's oil glands (sebaceous glands), and hair follicles which leads to plugged pores causing pimples, blackheads, whiteheads and inflammation. Pimples usually occur on the face, neck, back, chest, and shoulders. Though acne is not a severe health treat, it can be a source of significant emotional distress. Severe acne can lead to permanent scarring.
Acne occurs because the skin oil glands become blocked. Oil glands produce an oily substance called sebum (a substance produced to keep skin moisturized and healthy) which is generally released onto the skin surface through pores. However when the pores became blocked, it prevents sebum from reaching the surface of the skin. The mixture of oil and cells allows bacteria Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) that normally live on the skin to grow in the plugged follicles. These bacteria produce chemicals and enzymes and attract white blood cells that cause inflammation. When the wall of the plugged follicle breaks down, it spills everything into the nearby skin – sebum, shed skin cells, and bacteria – leading to lesions or pimples.
An increase level of hormone production is a known factor contributing to the production of sebum. Puberty is a stage when hormones are being produced, which is why teenagers are prone to acne during this time. The hormone that affects the oil gland is called androgen. Both males and female produce androgen, however male produce more. Males often have more breakouts than female and they often seem to get worst pimples and more cysts.